ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) is a computer, respectivly, a computer chip especially designed to perform one function, in relation to cryptocurrencies to Bitcoin mining/minting, and nothing else.
A coinbase transaction is the first transaction in a block. It is a unique type of bitcoin transaction that can be created by a miner. The miners use it to collect the block reward for their work and any other transaction fees collected by the miner are also sent in this transaction.
The process of guessing a special defined value before all other participants on the Bitcoin blockchain in order to propose a block of transactions for confirmation. As a “side effect” new Bitcoins are brought in circulation.
A blockchain algorithm in which a participant’s likelihood of being selected to confirm a block on a blockchain is probabilistically tied to the percentage of the blockchain’s token supply the participant controls.