Die Luft in Shanghai ist oft über längere Zeiträume hinweg sehr schlecht. Oft riecht es verbrannt, es ist stickig oder die Feinstaubbelastung ist extrem hoch. Die chinesische Regierung führt regelmäßig Messungen durch und veröffentlicht diese, doch leider sind diese Werte oft “geschönt” oder schlicht und ergreifend falsch. Daher führt das Konsulat der USA seit einiger Zeit eigene Messungen auf dem Botschaftsgelände durch und veröffentlich diese, bzw, stellt sie der Öffentlichkeit zur Weitergabe zu Verfügung.

Mein erster selbst erstellter Retweet-Bot auf Twitter macht nichts anderes, als in meinem Namen die Tweets des US-Konsulats zu retweeten. Geplant ist ein zweiter Bot in Deutsch und ein weiterer in Chinesisch mit entsprenden erklärenden Blogeinträgen. Wer also stündlich mit den neuesten Infos auf Twitter über die Luftqualität in Shanghai versorgt werden möchte, braucht mir nur auf Twitter zu folgen

Nachfolgend die Funktionsweise des Air Quality Monitor in Englisch und Chinesisch als Zitat der Website der US-Konsulatsseite:

U.S. Consulate Shanghai Air Quality Monitor

The U.S. Consulate has an air quality monitor to measure PM 2.5 particulates as an indication of the air quality on the Consulate compound located on Huai Hai Middle Road. Pollutants such as particle pollution are linked to a number of significant health effects — and those effects are likely to be more severe for sensitive populations, including people with heart or lung disease, children, and older adults. This monitor is a resource for the health of the American community. Citywide analysis cannot be done, however, on data from a single machine.

Particulates less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM 2.5) are referred to as “fine” particulates and are believed to pose the largest health risks. PM 2.5 is a standard recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and allows us to compare against U.S. standard measures. PM 2.5 particulates are of concern since they are small enough to directly enter the lungs and even the blood stream. For more information, please visit the EPA site.

The U.S. EPA has developed a formula to convert PM 2.5 readings into an air quality index (AQI) value than can help inform health-related decisions. For example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect public health, while an AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality. Please note that AQI is different from the Air Pollution Index (API) used in China. For more information on AQI and how it is calculated, please click here.

The monitor’s measurements, expressed in the form of PM 2.5 concentration (micrograms per cubic meter, µg/m3) and corresponding AQI, are available on Twitter.

Air Quality Index  (AQI)PM2.5
Health Advisory

Good
(0-50)
None

Moderate
(51-100)
Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.

Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups

(101-150)
People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion.
Unhealthy
(151-200)
People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion; everyone else should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion.
Very Unhealthy
(201-300)
People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should avoid all physical activity outdoors. Everyone else should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion.
Hazardous
(301-500)
Everyone should avoid all physical activity outdoors; people with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should remain indoors and keep activity levels low.

The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection provides its own air quality data for cities throughout China. You can view this information at https://english.mep.gov.cn.

美国驻上海总领事馆空气质量监测站

美国驻上海有一个空气质量监测器,用来测量位于淮海中路领事馆作为空气质量指数的PM2.5微粒。如颗粒污染物的污染物与一些显着的健康影响相连 – 这些影响可能对患心脏或肺部疾病的人、儿童和老年人等敏感人群更为严重。该监测器是美国人社区健康的一个资源。然而,从一台机器上得到的数据不能进行全市范围的分析。

直径小于2.5微米的微粒(PM2.5)被称为“微小”颗粒,它们被认为构成了最大的健康风险。PM2.5是美国环境保护局(EPA)认可的标准,让我们能够与美国的标准措施进行对比。PM2.5微粒之所以得到关注,是因为它们小到足以直接进入肺部甚至血液。有关详情,请访问环保局网站。

美国环境保护局开发了一个可以把PM2.5读数转化为空气质量指数的公式,有助于告知与健康有关的决策。比如说,空气质量指数为50代表空气质量优,对公众健康几乎没有影响。当指数为大于300时,代表有害的空气质量。值得注意的是,空气质量指数不同于在中国使用的空气污染指数。需要了解关于空气质量指数的更多信息以及它是如何计算的,请点击这里

监测的测量值以PM2.5浓度(µg/m3)的形式以及相应的空气质量指数,发布在https://twitter.com/cgshanghaiair上。

空气质量指数
(AQI)
PM2.5
健康建议

健康
(0-50)
中等
(51-100)
特别敏感的人群应该考虑减少长期或沉重的负荷。

对敏感人群不健康
(101-150)
有心脏或肺部疾病的人、老人和小孩应该减少长期或沉重的负荷。

不健康

(151-200)
有心脏或肺部疾病的人、老人和小孩应该避免长期或沉重的负荷。其他人也应该减少长期或沉重的负荷。

非常不健康
(201-300)
有心脏或肺部疾病的人、老人和小孩应该避免所有户外活动。其他人也应该避免长期或沉重的负荷。

危险
(301-500)
所有人都应该避免户外活动。有心脏或肺病的人、老人和小孩应该保持在室内,减少活动。

 

中国环境保护部为中国各地城市提供其自己空气质量数据。你可以在https://english.mep.gov.cn看到这一信息。

Der US Air Quality Monitor veröffentlich seine Ergebnisse unter anderem stündlich auf Twitter. Um die stündlichen Tweets zu verstehen und deren Inhalte interpretieren zu können, erklärt die US-Regierung auf einer Website, was der Air Quality Index ist und wie er funktioniert.Für Interessierte hier ebenfalls nochmal ein Zitat von der vorgenannten Website:

The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. For each of these pollutants, EPA has established national air quality standards to protect public health .Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in this country.
How Does the AQI Work?

Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500. The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect public health, while an AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality.

An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health. AQI values below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy-at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher.
Understanding the AQI

The purpose of the AQI is to help you understand what local air quality means to your health. To make it easier to understand, the AQI is divided into six categories:
Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values Levels of Health Concern Colors
When the AQI is in this range: ..air quality conditions are: …as symbolized by this color:
0-50 Good Green
51-100 Moderate Yellow
101-150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange
151 to 200 Unhealthy Red
201 to 300 Very Unhealthy Purple
301 to 500 Hazardous Maroon

Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and what they mean are:

“Good” AQI is 0 – 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.
“Moderate” AQI is 51 – 100. Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people. For example, people who are unusually sensitive to ozone may experience respiratory symptoms.
“Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups” AQI is 101 – 150. Although general public is not likely to be affected at this AQI range, people with lung disease, older adults and children are at a greater risk from exposure to ozone, whereas persons with heart and lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from the presence of particles in the air. .
“Unhealthy” AQI is 151 – 200. Everyone may begin to experience some adverse health effects, and members of the sensitive groups may experience more serious effects. .
“Very Unhealthy” AQI is 201 – 300. This would trigger a health alert signifying that everyone may experience more serious health effects.
“Hazardous” AQI greater than 300. This would trigger a health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

AQI colors

EPA has assigned a specific color to each AQI category to make it easier for people to understand quickly whether air pollution is reaching unhealthy levels in their communities. For example, the color orange means that conditions are “unhealthy for sensitive groups,” while red means that conditions may be “unhealthy for everyone,” and so on.
Air Quality Index Levels of Health Concern Numerical
Value Meaning
Good 0 to 50 Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk
Moderate 51 to 100 Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101 to 150 Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.
Unhealthy 151 to 200 Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.
Very Unhealthy 201 to 300 Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.
Hazardous 301 to 500 Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects
This page was last updated on Friday, December 09, 2011